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Emotions are specific psychological and physical reactions to the events of life. An emotion is a complex subjective experience that involves physiological and behavioral responses.
One has his own individual subjective experience with a particular event because the interpretation and description of the event vary. Subjective experience trigger a physiological response, mediated by hormones. The physiological response varies from person to person in the same experience. And it also varies at different times of the same experience in the same individual. The physiological response is expressed on the outside as a specific behavior, which may include fainting, redness of the face, muscle tension, facial expressions, tone of voice, rapid breathing, restlessness or other body language. This gives an indication to others that the person experiencing an emotion.
Basically, there are five theories on how and why people feel emotions, which are mentioned below:
Theory of evolution –
In the 1870s, Charles Darwin proposed that emotions are changing because they have an adaptive value. For example, fear has evolved as it helps people take steps to improve their chances of survival. He emphasized that facial expressions allow people to quickly judge one’s hostility or ease and communicate the intentions of others.
Theorists of recent evolution believe that emotions are innate responses to stimuli, which are affected by both our thoughts and our learning. They also believe that humans know more primary emotions, including happiness, contempt, surprise, disgust, anger, fear and sadness. And all the other emotions of different mixtures and the intensities of the primary emotions arise. For example, fear is a more intense form of primary emotion of fear.
The James-Lange Theory –
This theory was originally proposed by psychologists William James and physiologist Carl Lange. It is suggested that an external stimulus elicits a physiological response in an individual. Emotional reaction depends on how the physical reaction is interpreted. For example, walking through the forest when you saw a brown bear, it starts to shake and your heart starts to run. According to this theory of emotion, do not submerge because you are afraid. Instead, you are afraid because you tremble.
The Schechter-Singer Theory –
This theory suggests that a stimulus leads to a physiological response, which is then interpreted cognitively and marked as an emotion. In other words, people decide emotions based on physiological responses. Based on the cognitive interpretation of an event, people evoke emotion. The theory also suggests that similar physiological responses can produce different emotions. For example, if one experiences an acceleration of heart rate and a palette of sweating during a major examination, it is likely to identify emotion as anxiety. Similarly, if one experiences the same physical responses in a date with the couple, one could interpret these responses as love, affection or emotion.
The Bard Theory of Cannon –
This theory proposes that we experience physiological emotion and emotion at the same time. For example, the emotional response to the presence of a brown bear is fear. Fear then forces us to execute. In this way we can understand how emotions normally operate, and why we have them. It is generally considered a healthy response to escape from the bear.
It is now clear from the various theories that an emotion has three components to know. A stimulus, the response of physiological excitation and behavior. According to the James-Lange theory, physiological excitement caused by a stimulus precedes an emotional response. Whereas, according to Cannon-Bard’s theory, physiological emotion and emotional response are carried out simultaneously. The Schechter-Singer theory suggests that a stimulus causes a physiological escape before producing an emotion, which depends on the cognitive interpretation of an event.
The above theories, although with definite differences, help us to understand the nature of different emotions worldwide. Since emotions are part of our lives, a better understanding of their nature allows us to lead a better and meaningful life.
Emotions are part of our life, which depends largely on how we understand and manage. If we can manage them properly, we will be able to better manage our interpersonal interactions up to date, making life easier and more peaceful.
The Emotions and their Distinctive Hypotheses
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